Impact of LIVE MUSIC on Healthcare Settings

Impact On Blood Pressure

YearSourceHighlights
2017Science News: Science Daily, Drexel University“Overall, one of the most impactful findings was that music interventions of all kinds resulted in a moderate-to-strong effect in reducing patients’ anxiety.”

“When it came to pain reduction, the researchers found a large treatment benefit; for fatigue, a small-to-moderate treatment effect.”

“Small reductions in heart and respiratory rates, as well as lowered blood pressure, were also linked to music interventions.”

“The results of single studies suggest that music listening may reduce the need for anesthetics and analgesics, as well as decreased recovery time and duration of hospitalization, but more research is needed for these outcomes,” according to Bradt and her co-authors.”

2015Acta Paediatrica vol. 104: Live music reduces stress levels in very low-birthweight infants.“After music, the number of apnoeas and oxygen desaturations was significantly reduced on all three, days and the number of bradycardia episodes on day one. Pain scores significantly improved after music on all 3 days.”

“Exposure to live music reduced stress (salivary cortisol) and had beneficial effects on the physiologic parameters of stable preterm infants in a NICU.”

2015The Telegraph: Verdi, Beethoven and Puccini could help beat heart disease“A study by Oxford University suggests that compositions which match the rhythm of the body could be used to control the heart.”

“Research presented to the the British Cardiovascular Society (BCS) conference in Manchester found that listening to music with a repeated 10-second rhythm coincided with a fall in blood pressure, reducing the heart rate.”

2014Sage Journals: Psychophysiological reactions to music in male coronary patients and healthy controls“Music-listening produces significant decreases in the blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and heart rate of coronary patients but has no significant effect in healthy controls”

 

“Music-listening reduces stress, anxiety, and depression, enhances life satisfaction, optimism and hope, and makes life more meaningful in both coronary patients and healthy controls”

 

“The effects of music listening, that is, reduction in negative affect, enhancement of positive affect, and decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, are more intense in coronary patients than healthy controls.”

2012Online Library: Coping with Preoperative Anxiety in Cesarean Section“Women who listened to music before a cesarean section had a significant increase in positive emotions and a significant decline in negative emotions and perceived threat of the situation when compared with women in the control group, who exhibited a decline in positive emotions, an increase in the perceived threat of the situation, and had no change in negative emotions.”

“Women who listened to music also exhibited a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared with a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure and respiratory rate in the control group.”

Impact On Pain Management

YearSourceHighlights
2017CNN Health Online“Studies have found that listening to music before surgery can reduce anxiety, and may also reduce the need for sedatives. Listening to music after surgery, and even during, may ease pain and the need for pain meds. Hospitals seem to be taking notice.”

“The researchers found that patients who listened to music either before, during or after surgery had less pain, took less pain medication and were less anxious after surgery. The effects lasted more than four hours following the operation, and were greater for patients who grooved out before their surgery.”

2017HCA Today: The Medicine of Music“Music has demonstrated through research that it can help restore lost speech like in the case of former congresswoman Gabby Giffords, reduce the side effects of cancer therapy, aid in pain relief and improve the quality of life for dementia patients, as evidenced by the documentary “Alive Inside,” to name a few of the many benefits.”
2017BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine“A statistically significant difference in pain relief was demonstrated between music and non-music interventions indicating that music intervention has a positive effect on pain alleviation for burn patients.  Correspondingly, heart rate decreases were found after treatments that included music interventions.”
2016Researchgate.net: The Arts in Psychotherapy“Patient preferred live music (PPLM) can positively impact self-reported mood and pain for solid organ transplant patients…”

“Madson and Silverman (2010) found significant improvements in self-reported levels of pain, anxiety, relaxation, and nausea, as well as significant increases in positive verbalizations and positive affect”

2015Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine: Vol 4“Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies.”

“There were significant differences between groups on heart rate increase, oxygen saturation reduction and Pain Profile score following the procedure”

“Listening to Mozart music during heel prick is a simple and inexpensive tool for pain alleviating in preterm stable neonates”

2015The Lancet, vol 386: Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults“Music reduced postoperative pain and analgesia use and increased patient satisfaction.”

“Music could be offered as a way to help patients reduce pain and anxiety during the postoperative period. Timing and delivery can be adapted to individual clinical settings and medical teams.”

2014Cancer Nursing (Journal), vol 37: Effectiveness of music intervention in ameliorating cancer patients’ anxiety: a meta-analysis.“Music interventions significantly ameliorate anxiety, depression, pain, and fatigue in cancer patients, especially adults. Music interventions were more effective in adults than in children or adolescents and more effective when patients, rather than researchers, chose the music.”
2012Journal of Clinical Nursing Vol. 21: Effects of listening to music on pain intensity and pain distress after surgery“In the music group, the patients’ pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest, during deep breathing and in shifting position were significantly lower on the second postoperative day compared with control group of patients.”

“This study demonstrates that the use of music alleviates pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest, during deep breathing and in shifting position after abdominal surgery on the second postoperative day. Music intervention is safe, inexpensive and easily used to improve the healing environment for abdominal surgery patients.”

2008Science Daily: Joyful Music May Promote Heart Health “Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore have shown for the first time that the emotions aroused by joyful music have a healthy effect on blood vessel function.”

“Music, selected by study participants because it made them feel good and brought them a sense of joy, caused tissue in the inner lining of blood vessels to dilate (or expand) in order to increase blood flow.”

2008Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology Vol. 6: Music therapy in a comprehensive cancer center.“When used in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, music therapy has been found to help patients promote a better quality of life; better communicate their fear, sadness, or other feelings; and better manage stress, while alleviating physical pain and discomfort”

On Stress and Anxiety

 

YearSourceHighlights
2018Cambridge University Press“242 cancer patients upon admission to and at discharge from the hospital. Among them, 103 were hospitalized during which time a live concert took place (intervention group), whereas 139 patients were hospitalized when it did not (control group).”

“Compared to the control group, patients in the intervention group demonstrated less distress at discharge according to the DT (adjusted estimate of difference = –0.8, p = 0.001), lower HADS–Anxiety (–1.7, p < 0.001) and HADS–Depression scores (–1.3, p = 0.001), and higher scores on all the well-being scales.”

2017CNN Health Online“Studies have found that listening to music before surgery can reduce anxiety, and may also reduce the need for sedatives. Listening to music after surgery, and even during, may ease pain and the need for pain meds. Hospitals seem to be taking notice.”

“The researchers found that patients who listened to music either before, during or after surgery had less pain, took less pain medication and were less anxious after surgery. The effects lasted more than four hours following the operation, and were greater for patients who grooved out before their surgery.”

2017Outside Online: ‘Take Two Songs and Call Me in the Morning’“Stefan Koelsch, a professor of music psychology at Freie University, in Berlin, and his colleagues expanded on previous studies suggesting that positive moods encouraged by music can maintain healthy physiological responses to stress. Their resultant study, published in the journal Nature Research, found that the release of cortisol among subjects listening to music heightened their abilities to react and overcome stressful situations.”
2016Researchgate.net: The Arts in Psychotherapy“Patient preferred live music (PPLM) can positively impact self-reported mood and pain for solid organ transplant patients..”

“Madson and Silverman (2010) found significant improvements in self-reported levels of pain, anxiety, relaxation, and nausea, as well as significant increases in positive verbalizations and positive affect”

2016Western Journal of Nursing Research vol. 38: Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.“Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical “relaxation” music intervention”

“These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI (traumatic brain injury).”

2015International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol 22 : Effects of Music Listening on Pre-treatment Anxiety and Stress“Waiting for a medical procedure can exert significant feelings of state anxiety in patients. Music listening has been shown to be effective in decreasing anxiety levels.”

“State anxiety levels in the music group decreased significantly after intervention as compared to the control group.”

“Listening to music prior to treatment decreases anxiety levels to a greater extent than waiting in silence”

2014The Cochrane database of systematic reviews vol. 12:Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients“Results indicated that music listening may be beneficial for anxiety reduction in mechanically ventilated patients”

 

“Findings indicated that listening to music consistently reduced heart rate and respiratory rate, suggesting a relaxation response”

2014Cancer Nursing (Journal), vol 37: Effectiveness of music intervention in ameliorating cancer patients’ anxiety: a meta-analysis.“Music interventions significantly ameliorate anxiety, depression, pain, and fatigue in cancer patients, especially adults. Music interventions were more effective in adults than in children or adolescents and more effective when patients, rather than researchers, chose the music.”
2014Orthopedic Nursing (Journal), vol 33: Effects of music and relaxation interventions on perceived anxiety in hospitalized patients“Music and relaxation interventions could be an additional tool in assisting patients to become less anxious during their hospital stay. Music focused relaxation and music and video are both valuable and cost-effective strategies that can assist the orthopaedic and oncology patient population.”
2014Sage Journals: Psychophysiological reactions to music in male coronary patients and healthy controls“Music-listening produces significant decreases in the blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and heart rate of coronary patients but has no significant effect in healthy controls”

 

“Music-listening reduces stress, anxiety, and depression, enhances life satisfaction, optimism and hope, and makes life more meaningful in both coronary patients and healthy controls”

 

“The effects of music listening, that is, reduction in negative affect, enhancement of positive affect, and decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, are more intense in coronary patients than healthy controls.”

2013American Psychological Association: Music as Medicine Vol. 44, No. 10, print page 46“The researchers found that the gato box [a drum-like instrument used to simulate two-tone heartbeat rhythms], the Remo ocean disc [a round instrument that mimics the sound of the womb] and singing all slowed a baby’s heart rate, although singing was the most effective.”

“Music improves the body’s immune system function and reduces stress. Listening to music was also found to be more effective than prescription drugs in reducing anxiety before surgery”

2012Researchgate: Music interventions for psychological and physical outcomes in cancer“Seven high-quality trial studies indicated music had positive effects on coping anxiety assessed by the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale.

“Many moderate-quality trials (amount of studies supporting varies per conclusion) suggested the following:

‘music reduced anxiety assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, lowered anxiety assessed by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, improved depression, had positive effects on pain management, lowered heart rate, and improved quality of life’ ”

2009Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift vol 134: music and health“It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam”

“there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery”

“music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine”

2008Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology Vol. 6: Music therapy in a comprehensive cancer center.“When used in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, music therapy has been found to help patients promote a better quality of life; better communicate their fear, sadness, or other feelings; and better manage stress, while alleviating physical pain and discomfort”

Improve On Outlook and Overall Mood

YearSourceHighlights
2018*Cambridge University Press“242 cancer patients upon admission to and at discharge from the hospital. Among them, 103 were hospitalized during which time a live concert took place (intervention group), whereas 139 patients were hospitalized when it did not (control group).”

“Compared to the control group, patients in the intervention group demonstrated less distress at discharge according to the DT (adjusted estimate of difference = –0.8, p = 0.001), lower HADS–Anxiety (–1.7, p < 0.001) and HADS–Depression scores (–1.3, p = 0.001), and higher scores on all the well-being scales.”

2016Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Ryerson University

and The Potential Underlying Mechanisms

“Music has been shown to activate brain regions associated with emotion, reward, and decision-Making.”

“Recent empirical studies provide preliminary evidence for the ability of music to modulate memory function in persons with AD (Alzheimer’s Disease)”

“Music listening increases dopaminergic function, which enhances emotional processing through autonomic activation while attaching a cognitive aspect of reward to the experience”

2016Deseret News: Strike Up the Band for Better Health“Massachusetts General, environmental music program has been enthusiastically received by employees and families who say encountering live music in a hospital instantly improves the experience, said Lorrie Kubicek, a board-certified music therapist at the hospital.”

“Most people who pass through an area where there is a live musician playing find it a relaxing and calming experience,”

“I’ve heard parents say, ‘Wow, that’s the first time I’ve seen my child smile since she came in the hospital.’”

2014Sage Journals: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, Vol 77“This exploratory study investigated whether live music could facilitate the expression of positive behaviour in people with Alzheimer’s disease.”

“The total number of positive behaviors increased significantly from a median number of 4.3 before the intervention to 30 during, and 24.3 after the intervention.”

“Live individualized music may provide occupational therapists with a useful strategy to enrich the lives of people with Alzheimer’s disease”

2013Taylor and Francis Open Select vol. 5: Music as a method of coping with cancer“Healing music [relaxing music] enhances the mind/body connection and enables patients to get in touch with their inner world.

Religious music and cheerful music can help patients achieve a balance in their inner feelings.

Hard and heavy music can help young cancer patients rid themselves of their anger and reconstruct their self-image”

2012Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.“listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions.”

“daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early post-stroke stage”

2011McGill University: Musical Chills“Scientists have found that the pleasurable experience of listening to music releases dopamine”

“Dopamine release is greater for pleasurable versus neutral music”

“Dopamine is known to play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining behavior that is biologically necessary”

2008>Natural News:  Music Shown to Facilitate the Development of Neurons in the Brain”Music affects levels of such steroids as cortisone, testosterone and estrogen … Unlike supplementing the brain through hormone replacement therapy which can have side effects, music is natural”

“music is able to improve the mood state of people with psychiatric disorders, ameliorate the cognitive deficits in those with dementia, and increase motor functioning in Parkinson patients”

Music and rhythm are essential to the developing brain as it helps to create and strengthen more neural connections that allow for auditory processing.

2008EurekAlert: Listening to music improves stroke patients’ recovery“[it was] found that three months after the stroke, verbal memory improved from the first week post-stroke by 60 percent in music listeners, by 18 percent in audiobook listeners and by 29 percent in non-listeners”

“the ability to control and perform mental operations and resolve conflicts among responses-improved by 17 percent in music listeners, but no improvement was observed in audiobook listeners and non-listeners”

“the music listening group experienced less depressed and confused mood than the patients in the control group”

2006Cambridge Core:Keep music live: music and the alleviation of apathy in dementia subjects“Live interactive music has immediate and positive engagement effects in dementia subjects with apathy, regardless of the severity of their dementia.”
2006IMJ: The Benefit of Live Music in the General Hospital“The majority of respondents reported positive emotional states after the music: 82% of respondents stated that listening to the music helped them to relax, 59% stated that hearing the music made them feel happier, 47% felt more positive, 29% felt more energised and 19% felt part of a group. A small minority 3% of respondents felt less pain as a result of listening to the live music.“

 

Other Effects

 

 

2018News Medical Life Sciences: Personalized music activates brain network spared from ravages of dementiaPeople with dementia are confronted by a world that is unfamiliar to them, which causes disorientation and anxiety” said Jeff Anderson, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor in Radiology at U of U Health and contributing author on the study. “Language and visual memory pathways are damaged early as the disease progresses, but personalized music programs can activate the brain, especially for patients who are losing contact with their environment.”
2016Cochrane: Music for insomnia in adults“Five studies measured sleep quality. The findings suggest that listening to music can improve sleep quality”
2015American Psychological Association: Can music help people with epilepsy?“Approximately 80 percent of epilepsy cases are what is known as temporal lobe epilepsy, in which the seizures appear to originate in the temporal lobe of the brain. Music is processed in the auditory cortex in this same region of the brain, which was why Charyton wanted to study the effect of music on the brains of people with epilepsy.”

“The researchers found significantly higher levels of brainwave activity in participants when they were listening to music. More important, said Charyton, brainwave activity in people with epilepsy tended to synchronize more with the music, especially in the temporal lobe, than in people without epilepsy”